Difference between domestic and foreign welding skills contest and training
The basic situation, the world skills competition
1 origin and general situation
The skills of organization is a worldwide organization of neutrality, non-profit, is now headquartered in Holland, Amsterdam. World skills competition 's history can be traced back to 1946, is sponsored by the spanish. After the two World War, the world need professional skills of labor, therefore, Spain began Youth Skills training. For evaluation of training results, beginning in 1950 organized the first world skills competition in madrid. Since the beginning of 1955, Europe, Asia, America, Oceania and Africa and other countries ( regions ) have to participate in the world competition, making it an international skills competition. Before the 20 contest, in addition to the second to fourth session is held once every two years, until 1971, held twentieth sessions are held once a year. Held since 1971 twentieth session of the world skills competition, still basically is held once every two years ( except for the twenty-fourth ~ twenty-sixth year held its twenty-ninth session, after a year, and extension ) and to every odd year. World skills competition from the seventh session, by Member States ( area ) the application hosted in turn, the forty-first world skills competition will be held in London in 2011. In addition to world skills competition, and the continents of regional competition, generally held in even-numbered years.
To participate in the world competition, must become a member of the world organization ( area ) skills. At present, the skills of organization has 57 member countries ( regions), on 5 continents, mainly developed countries and major economies of countries or regions. Among them, is the largest number of Europe and Asia, respectively 23 and 18 member countries ( regions).
World skills competition has three purposes: one is to promote the country between adolescent skills, improve the skills level; two is to promote mutual understanding between countries; three is to promote the exchange of information occupation skill training system and method. For each participating country, by participating in the world skills competition, one can learn foreign advanced technology, on the other hand, according to the world standard for domestic competition, is conducive to the training and selection of talent young core skills.
The 2 competitions
At present, the world skills competition established 48 games. Competition is not immutable and frozen, will be adjusted according to the development trend of industry. These games belong to the transport and logistics, 4; building and construction technology, 13; manufacturing and engineering technology, 14; information and communication technology, 5; the creation of art and fashion, 5; social and personal services, 7 items in 6 categories.
Establish the competition project must follow the rules, at least in the number of our country is: no less than 12 to participate in the project. Countries may also apply for adding new events, on the new project requirements, the first participants shall not be less than 8, the second participating country shall not be less than 10, the third participating country shall not be less than 12.
3 contestants and judges
In addition to individual team project ( such as: mechanical and electrical integration, mobile remote control devices ), each project must be the players, age under 22 years old ( for registration shall prevail, electromechanical integration 's age can be relaxed to 25 years of age ). Regardless of whether their players, each project members can send 1 technical experts as judges (as well as players technical guidance personnel ) to participate in the.
4 questions and score
The competition ended, technical experts all over the world together to discuss technical framework of the next contest, and elected chief technical experts responsible for summarizing each requirement of test questions and opinions and division of labor ( chief technical expert requirement is participated in the 2 contest, ~3 times and fluent in English ). Later, technical experts to continue through the forum of experts discussed repeatedly identified questions and scoring rules. Therefore, technical exchanges between experts in international competition preparation is essential. Need to prepare in advance of the project, will be six months to one year in advance equipment, raw materials published brand, type in the World Skills Competition Organizing Committee website; part of the project will be published in 6 months before the contest questions. Competition to use equipment is mainly composed of the host country, usually contest sponsors of the products, but also to consider the general world. Each project contest for 4 days ( 22 hours), an average of 6 hours a day. After the competition that the publication of the results, the total score from the objective and subjective components. The objective is usually composed of a group of three judges on the player points one by one, and finally take the average ( not director referee committee participation grade ). Out of 600 points, player to score more than 500 points can be won first prize.
The introduction of the two world, welder skill contest
The welder skill competitions ask the contestants at the age of 22 years old. Welding players must finish all kinds of tube plate and rolling section all-position butt welding and fillet welding, tilt and rotation angles. Welding method used by shielded metal arc welding ( code 111 ), solid wire CO2 gas shielded arc welding ( code 135 ), flux-cored wire, CO2 gas shielded arc welding ( code 136 ), argon tungsten-arc welding ( code 141 ), gas metal arc welding ( code 131 ). Welding material for low carbon steel, stainless steel, aluminum alloy plate, pipe or rolled profile.
The forty-first session of the world skills competition welding actual events and in 2009 held in Calgary the fortieth World Skills Competition welding events are composed of the following four modules, but the welding method and welding positions have different change, next to fortieth world skills competition game project as an example to illustrate the actual welding:
The first module: assembly. Are composed of low carbon steel sheet and tube: component 2 plate fillet weld, each component consists of 2 boards, specifications for 250 mm to 125 mm ( 12 mm long, 250 mm wide ) of 100 mm to 12 mm; 2 steel butt weld components, each component comprises 2 plates, wherein the 1 set of specifications 250 mm 100 mm 10 mm (generous ), the other 1 sets of specifications for 250 mm to 100 mm to 16 mm; the 1 tube assembly, composed of 2 diameter of 114.3 mm to 8.56 mm thick wall steel tube.
The fortieth session of the world skills competition steel component is vertically fixed using argon tungsten arc welding, weld appearance and internal defect detection of X ray flaw detection score; component 2 steel weld using solid wire CO2 gas shielded welding, a welding position, another in the vertical position of welding, and welding press drawings and technical requirements; 2 steel butt weld assembly in horizontal position, small thickness of a group using solid wire CO2 gas shielded welding, and the thickness of a group using shielded metal arc welding with flux-cored wire CO2 gas shielded welding, and welding according to the drawing requirements. Plate assembly welding in addition to weld appearance score, but also for the bending test ( butt weld ) and fracture test ( fillet ) evaluation. The welding time is about 5 hours ~6 hours.
The forty-first session of the world skills competition is still more than 4 kinds of assembly, is still the same welding inspection project time, basically the same ( butt welding of 10 mm and 16 mm plate no longer do bending specimen detection instead of X ray flaw detection ), but the position of welding, welding method is composed of 22 members of the 22 different scheme, the 5 scheme, still need to wait until a week before the competition started, by all welding expert vote for change, and at least 30% compared with the previous. This will give our preparations to bring the very big uncertainty, difficulty and huge workload.
The second module: pressure vessel. Tube structure of a fully enclosed / plate, plate thickness of 6 mm ~10 mm, tube wall thickness 3 mm ~10 mm, the overall size of about 350 mm to 350 mm to 400 mm, use the shielded metal arc welding, solid wire CO2 gas shielded arc welding, flux-cored wire, CO2 gas shielded arc welding, TIG welding 4 welding methods and the welding position of all. Pressure vessel weight about 35 kg. After welding, except the appearance test scores, and the hydraulic pressure test, the test pressure of 7 MPa ( 70 kgf / cm ), the welding time is about 10 hours.
Third modules: aluminum alloy structure. Aluminum alloy structure partially closed, the overall size of about 200 mm to 200 mm to 250 mm, aluminum / pipe material thickness 1.5 mm ~3 mm, TIG welding, after welding, in addition to detect appearance when necessary, from the middle cut for weld penetration testing and scoring, welding time of about 2 ~3 hours.
Fourth modules: stainless steel structural part closed. Tungsten argon arc welding, the overall size of about 150 mm to 150 mm to 200 mm, stainless steel / tube material thickness 1.5 mm ~3 mm, the welding time is about 2 hours ~3 hours, test score and aluminum alloy structure for the same.
22 hours before game time may be too long, easily lead to the contestants to physical and mental fatigue. At present, the experts have competition time in the expert forum for discussion, to reduce competition time. Perhaps from the next race, the welder competition may be reduced to 16 hours ~18 hours.